African American Soldiers 1 gas masks Riveters pilots in dress uniforms doughboys with mules The pilots African American Officers Mule Rearing



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Kimball War Memorial Buildingloupe
178 One Way Street
USA 24853
Hassell T. Hicks, architect

The Kimball World War Memorial was the first memorial built in the United States to honor African-American veterans of World War I. The Classical Revival style building, designed by noted West Virginia architect Hassel T. Hicks of Welch, was completed in 1928 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. The War Memorial became the headquarters of the nation’s first all-black American Legion Post and hosted some of the state’s first NAACP meetings.

Unknown today by many Americans, over 400,000 African Americans volunteered to serve in combat during the Great War. 50,000 of these soldiers actually served overseas -- one-third of the total U.S. fighting forces -- and 1,500 of these came from McDowell County. While discriminatory military practices were still prevalent, when allowed to fight these black soldiers did so with honor, demonstrating their valor in combat with French forces at the Battles of Argonne, Chateau Thierry, St. Mihies, Champagne, Vosges, and Metz. One-hundred-and-seventy-one (171) were awarded the Croix de Guerre for “gallantry in action”.  Thirteen hundred (1,300) were eventually commissioned as officers in the U.S. Military for their service during World War I.

The War Memorial was designed in the classical Greek style by Hassell T. Hicks, a noted Welch architect, also a World War I veteran, and was dedicated on February 11, 1928. Originally the building housed an auditorium with a small stage, a library, meeting rooms, kitchen facilities, a billiard room and a trophy room, with displays of plaques dedicated to veterans, and wartime memorabilia. It was a multi-purpose facility, hosting such diverse activities as American Legion meetings, high school proms, wedding receptions, and performances by Cab Calloway and other well-known entertainers of the day.

The Kimball War Memorial was a focal point of community life for decades, serving as a cultural and social center for all residents of McDowell County.

Over time, deterioration, abandonment and finally a fire in 1991 crippled the beautiful structure, leaving only its exterior shell.

For over 30 years, a group of citizens had been pursuing the dream of restoring the Memorial to its former glory. With the financial and other support of many, the dream became a reality. The memorial was the recipient of a 2007 Honor Award presented by the West Virginia Chapter of the America Institute of Architects and was also featured in the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s forum as a Preservation Solution. The Memorial was also honored in 2006 with a Congressional Black Caucus Veterans Braintrust Award.

Presently, The Kimball World War Memorial was serves as a living community resource and is available for a wide variety of functions, including tours, training sessions, classes, organizational meetings, organizational dinners, receptions and other social events.

The two-story, light-brick building stands on a sturdy cut-stone foundation. Its plan is a rectangular box with a small entrance vestibule on the east side. The facade faces south and displays a monumental classical portico centered in the middle. Four terra cotta columns stand on brick bases and support a tall terra cotta entablature. Laurel reliefs decorate the frieze section over each column. A band of dentils extends across the portico just under the cornice. Historic photographs of the building reveal a terra cotta extension over the entablature that held the words "World War Memorial". This section of the entablature has crumbled and no longer displays the building's name. A simple terra cotta parapet at the roofline flanks the centered portico and extends along the other two sides of the building.

Three pairs of door openings stand between the columns and open onto a shallow balcony, each separated by the columns' brick bases. The original doors were wood-framed, multi-paned double doors with metal-framed transoms. On the second level centered over each doorway are tall, metal-framed multi-paned windows in arched openings. flanking the portico are single multi-paned windows on each level.

The Memorial Building's main entrance stands on the east side behind an entrance vestibule that has an arched opening. Concrete stairs with wrought iron railings ascend from the street level to the entrance. An arched window identical to the windows on the facade is located directly above the entrance. The rear of the building holds two second-level doorways that open at ground level to the steep grade behind. The building's west side simply has a narrow chimney and two windows on each level.

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Los Angeles Public Library Memorial Branchloupe
4625 West Olympic Boulevard
Los Angeles
USA 90019

The history of the Memorial Branch Library began in 1923, seven years before the building opened. That year, the land on which the library now stands was purchased by the student body and alumni association of Los Angeles High School, and deeded to the City of Los Angeles in commemoration of twenty alumni who died in World War I. Six years later, the city gave the Los Angeles Public Library the right to establish a branch on the site.

The library formally opened on April 29, 1930. The architectural firm Austin and Ashley designed the building in a picturesque English Tudor style to harmonize with the high school building across Olympic Boulevard, which they also designed. The students of Los Angeles High School commissioned a stained glass window with the names of the twenty alumni and an inscription stating hope for “peace among nations.” The window, designed by the renowned Judson Art Studio, was inspired by those in the Parliament Building of London and was installed in the adult reading room.

On the memorial stained glass windows:
"The symbols and insignia are shown as decoration on the shields and in the top row of windows represent the various armed forces -- the Infantry, Field Artillery, Navy, Marine Corps, Engineers and Aviation.

In the second row of windows the tower of the old L.A. High School, the seal of the city of L.A., the coat of arms of the United States, the California state flag, the coat of arms of the L.A. High School, and the tower of the present L.A. High school building are represented.

The lower row of light (two center panels) have the memorial tablets giving the names of the alumni who died in the service. The shields on either side carry the emblem of ""Sacrifice,"" pictured by the legend of the Pelican in Piety, and on either end is an heraldic arrangement of the poem ""In Flanders Field.""

Across the base of the window is the inscrIption ""Dedicated to the Alumni of the Los Angeles High School who died in the World War. 1914—1918. May the sacrifice of these lives contribute to the establishment of peace among nations.”

Spirit of the American Doughboy, Kingman, Arizonaloupe
310 N 4th Street
Ernest Moore Viquesney

Dedicated May 30, 1928.  A goldfish pond that was once at the base is now filled in and planted with flowers. A machine gun was originally mounted on the raised part of the base between the two figures. Its disappearance has been the subject of news articles containing speculations about when it vanished. While it was missing in a 1997 picture that appeared in the Daily Miner, it was reported as being present at the time of a 1993 survey of outdoor sculptures.

The color picture at the left above is included to show more details of the sailor, who appears to be standing on a dock by a rope enwrapped stanchion (between his feet) as he waves his small round cap at some offshore object. Other metal "Spirit of the American Navy" sculptures accompany Doughboys at Clearwater
, Florida; Naperville, IllinoisFort Wayne, Indiana; Granite and Hobart, Oklahoma; and a stone version at Crowell, Texas. A similar Viquesney tribute to the Navy, titled "Sailor", occurs at Palatka, Florida. 

Kingman, Arizona is the only known location where two Viquesney statues occur on the same pedestal (Fort Worth, Texas has a Viquesney Doughboy and a WWII G.I. on the same base, but the latter is by a different sculptor, Giordano Grassi, and was placed in 1980).


Photo credit: https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=29398

Description credit: http://doughboysearcher.weebly.com/kingman-arizona.html

Spirit of the American Doughboy, Fort Smith, Arkansas loupe
4901 Midland Blvd
Fort Smith/Sebastian County
USA 72904
Ernest Morre Viquesney
Originally dedicated July 4, 1930 at the entrance to Lewis Tilles Park, but placed in storage in 1979 after substantial vandalism, including destruction of the rifle. After refurbishment by Ralph Irwin of Van Buren, Arkansas, it was rededicated at its current location on Memorial Day, 1998.

The Fort Smith Doughboy is one of only two specifically designated Viquesney Doughboys on the National Register of Historical Places.  The other is at Helena, Arkansas. However, at least three more Viquesney Doughboys (Spencer, Indiana, Meridian, Mississippi, and Columbia Falls, Montana) are on the grounds of locations included on the Register (close, but no cigar, as they say).

There is a very substantial roll of coiled razor-wire placed around the feet to discourage attempts to climb the monument.
The following history of Post 31's involvement with the acquisition, placement, and dedication of the Ft. Smith Doughboy was kindly provided by Flickr.com member sunnybrook100 (she has also logged an entry for this sculpture at the Historical Marker Database):

Ellig-Stoufer American Legion Post 31 (named in part after Victor Ellig, the first soldier from Fort Smith, Arkansas to be killed in WWI) was always heavily involved with creating and promoting parks and playgrounds in Fort Smith. In 1928, the Commander Henry Armstrong was named permanent chairman of the city's parks and playgrounds commission. A committee was formed then, "investigating the immediate needs of Lewis Tilles children's park."
It was at about this time that the post began a drive to install a World War I memorial at Tilles Park. That effort came near fruition in April of 1930, when the Arkansas Legionnaire announced that an "announcement has been made that with the city park board paying $500 of the $1,000 necessary, a lifesize bronze statue of a Doughboy will be erected at the entrance to the Lewis Tilles Children's park, Grand Avenue, as a memorial to the men who served in the World War." The statue had already been ordered, and dedication was planned that summer.

Appropriately, the dedication was scheduled for July 4, 1930. More than 2,000 people gathered at Tilles Park that evening for a ceremony that "including the unveiling and dedication of 'The Spirit of the American Doughboy', the first night tennis match ever held in the city, and a band concert." Mr. and Mrs. O.C. Ellig, Victor Ellig's parents, and several Gold Star mothers were in attendance. Dr. W.R. Brooksher, who led the committee that since 1928 had worked to acquire a World War I memorial, presented the statue to Post 31 Commander John Coley, who in turn presented it to Henry Armstrong of the parks and playgrounds commission. Armstrong then formally presented the monument to Mayor Fagan Bourland. The statue was unveiled by "two little misses," Jo Ann Carroll and Nancy Mae Connor, and the ceremony ended with the singing of "America". The sculpture was described by the Helena World as "the only true representation of the real Doughboy and his indomitable spirit."


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