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Sources and References

Books, military records, magazines, photos, films, and newspapers were all consulted during research for the BrookeUSA Horse Heroes site. The list here is not a complete list of every source used, but represents the major sources of information for the site. Specific source notes are provided to indicate general content and degree to which that source was relevant to the Horse Heroes topic.

Although online citations are provided, it must be expected that gradually these links will cease to work as technology and digital media evolve. Performing a new search using the title of the item is recommended if the link is not functional.

Numerous organizational sources provided assistance, but special thanks is due to James Tobias, Historical Resources Branch and Dr. Andrew Birtle, Writer in Residence, both at the U.S. Army Center of Military History, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C..

BrookeUSA wishes to express its gratitude to Jo Ellen Hayden, B.A., M.A., M.S., BrookeUSA Horse Heroes Special Project Volunteer, for researching and authoring this site, and to Catherine Bishop for proofreading the entire site. 




Dehner & Company Omaha NE
Fasig-Tipton Company, Inc. Lexington KY
International Museum of the Horse Lexington KY
Keeneland Library Lexington KY
Kentucky Department of Veterans Affairs Frankfort KY
Library of Congress of the United States Washington DC
Museum of the Horse Soldier Tucson AZ
National Archives of the United States College Park MD
National World War I Museum and Memorial Kansas City MO
Third Cavalry Museum Ft. Hood TX
U.S. Army Center of Military History Washington DC
U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center Carlisle PA
U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum Ft. Lee VA
U.S. Army Quartermaster School Ft. Lee VA
U.S. Army Transportation Museum Ft. Eustis VA
U.S. Army Transportation School Ft. Lee VA
U.S. Cavalry Museum Fort Riley KS



There are relatively few contemporary accounts of the war that focus on horses and mules, but they are valuable because they reflect the thoughts of the soldiers at the time. These were used extensively to provide insight into the actual lives and conditions of the animals. Later books provide comprehensive analysis of numbers and costs as well as the political climate, state of veterinary medicine, and overall assessment of battlefield life.

Title National Focus Author Publisher Date Notes
Horses Were More Valuable Than Men - WW1 Memoirs England Bassett, Charles Stefan R. Woroniecki, London 2014 war diary of British trooper assigned to horse care in Transport unit
Animal Heroes of the Great War US Baynes, Ernest Harold Macmillan Company 1927 Regarded as the most contemporary account on the subject
For Love of Horses: Diaries of Mrs Geoffrey Brooke Intl Brooke, Dorothy, ed by Glenda Spooner The Brooke Hospital For Animals, London 1960 first-person account of Dorothy Brooke's work in Cairo, 1930-1955
The War Horses: The Tragic Fate of a Million Horses Sacrificed in the First World War England Butler, Simon Halsgrove, Somerset, UK 2011 Text with layout that incorporates many photos; extensive bibliography
The U.S. Cavalry Horse US Carter, General William H. The Lyons Press, Guilford, Connecticut 2003 first published in 1895, a detailed reflection of thoughts of that time
The Mule in Military Service England Clayton, Anthony The Book Guild, Ltd., Kibworth, Leicestershire 2017 Mules in the British Army, 19th and 20th centuries.
Animals in War England Cooper, Jilly Lyons Press, Guilford, Connecticut 2002 brief volume covering dogs, horses, mules, etc.
War Horse: A History of the Military Horse and Rider US DiMarco, Louis A. Yardley, Pa.: Westholme Publishing 2007 Includes maps, iIllustrations, tables, notes, bibliography, and index
Shavetails & Bell Sharps: The History of the U.S. Army Mule US Essin, Emmett M. University of Nebraska Press 1997 Mules in the U.S. Army, 1832-1956
Pershing's Crusaders: The American Soldier in World War I US Faulkner, Richard S. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence 2017 Social history of the dougboys and their experiences in the Great War
The Horse and the War England Galtrey, Captain Sidney Country Life, London and Percheron Society of America, Chicago 1918 Section on British Remount by Brigadier-General T.R.F. Bate
Warrior - The True Story of a Real War Horse England George, Isabel Harper True Friend, London 2014 derivitive of original first person book by Jack Seeley
Dorothy Brooke and the Fight to Save Cairo's Lost War Horses Intl Hayter-Menzies, Grant Potomac Books/University of Nebraska Press 2017 In-depth account of the beginnings of the world's largest equine charity
The Fourth Horseman: One Man's Mission To Wage The Great War In America US Koenig, Robert L. Public Affairs/Perseus, New York 2006 true story of attempt to infect horses awaiting shipment to Europe with anthrax
War Horse: Mounting the Cavalry with America's Finest Horses US Livingston, Phil & Roberts, Ed Bright Sky Press, Albany, Texas 2003 Comprehensive history of the U.S. Remount Service
Horse Mobilization England MacMunn, Lieut.-Colonel G.F., DSO Firestep Editions, National Army Museum, UK 1913 reprint from The Army Review and Harrison and Sons, London by FireStep Editions
American Military Horsemanship - the Military Seat of the United States Cavalry 1792 through 1944 US Ottevaere, James A. Authorhouse, Bloomington, IN 2005 extremely comprehensive
Diseases of the Horse US several US Dept of Agriculture 1923 veterinary textbook
Manual for Stable Sergeants US several Mounted Service School, Ft. Riley, KS 1917 Diseases and injuries and their treatment
The Horse Soldier, 1776-1943 : the United States Cavalryman-His Uniforms, Arms, Accoutrements, and Equipments US Steffen, Randy University of Oklahoma Press, Norman 1977 extremely comprehensive
United States Military Saddles 1812-1943 US Steffen, Randy University of Oklahoma Press, Norman 1973 extremely comprehensive
The Horse In War: Horses & Mules in the Allied Armies During the First World War, 1914-1918 Canada Tamblyn, D. S. Leonaur, Canada 2011 First person account with notes on numerous individual horses
The Twilight of the U.S. Cavalry: Life in the Old Army, 1917-1942 US Truscott, Lucian K. Jr. University Press of Kansas 1988 History of the last years of the U.S. Army Cavalry
Notes on Horse Management Part 3 England Veterinary Dept, General Staff, War Office Firestep Editions, National Army Museum, UK 1919 Update with particular emphasis on grooming
Notes on Horse Management Parts 1 & 2 England Veterinary Dept, General Staff, War Office Firestep Editions, National Army Museum, UK 1916 British Cavalry manual on feeding, stable management, shoeing, clipping, and more
Theirs Not To Reason Why: Horsing the British Army 1875-1925 England Winton, Graham Helion and Company Ltd., Solihull, West Midlands, England 2013 extremely comprehensive

Internet Sources

The internet was useful to locate photographs, organizations, published material from newspapers and magazines that had been archived, and museums.

Resource Web Address National Focus Notes
British Army Museum, London, England England Online museum exhibit
Canadian War Museum, Ottowa, Ontario, Canada Canada Online museum exhibit
Cob+Co Museum, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia Australia Online museum exhibit
International Museum of the Horse, Lexington, Kentucky Intl Online museum exhibit
Museum of the Horse Soldier, Tuscon, Arizona US Online museum exhibit
National World War I Museum and Memorial, Kansas City, Missouri US Online museum exhibit
US Cavalry Museum, Ft. Riley Kansas US Online museum exhibit
Brooke USA Intl International equine charity
Society of the Military Horse US Organization devoted to history of military horse usage
The Army Veterinary Service During the Great War, WW1 US Organization devoted to history of U.S. Army Veterinary Corps
U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group US Facebook page of U.S Army Veterinary Corps Preservation Group
U.S. Cavalry Association, Ft. Reno, Oklahoma US Organization devoted to history of U.S. Cavalry
Chronicling America - Newspapers online at LOC US Newspapers online at Library of Congress, Washington DC
H-Net (Humanities Net) online collection - Horses Intl Papers related to the humanities, including history
H-Net World War I Crossroads Intl Papers related to the humanities, including history
Library of Congress Online Collections - World War, 1914 to 1918, Horses US Library of Congress search results - World War 1914-1918 Horses
National Archives Catalog Search - Horses*:*&f.level=(series%20or%20item%20or%20fileUnit)&f.subjectIds=10637564 US National Archives search results - World War I horses
National Army Museum, London Online Collections - Horse In War England National Army Museum search results - Horses
National World War I Museum Online Collections - Horses US National World War I Museum search results - Horses
Online images - U.S. Cavalry US Online images - U.S. Cavalry
Online images - U.S. Cavalry history,g_2:first%20world%20war&*&cad=h US Online images - U.S. Cavalry history
A Display of Boots the Stockmen Wear US article on boots sold to U.S. Army
Animal Gas Masks Germany article on horse gas masks
During World War I, Newport News port was biggest supplier of war horses for British army US article on shipments through Newport News, VA
Enlisted Men's Saddle, Model of 1917 US 1917 saddle discussion
Handwritten World War I Notes of Verne Chaney, Sr. US Verne Chaney, Sr. notes on WWI handwritten - 70+ pages
John 'Galloping Jack' Seely England brief bio of General John Seely
Military Masks Animals in Chemical Warfare US in-depth article on animal gas mask technology
Letter on Requisitioning of Mules US letter on need for mules
Spielberg’s War Horse: Animal Heroes of the Great War (Part 1). England simply written overview of the role of horses in WWI
Summary of Horses, Mules, Ambulances, and Wagons Purchased and Sold in Various Locations US official U.S. Army list of animals and vehicles before WWI
Tables of Organization for Military Units US Organization of military units at end of war
The Horses of World War I US overview of British WWI horse use
The Italian Cavalry School Italy discussion of Caprilli method and its influence on military riding
The McClellan Saddle US discussion of McClellan Saddle design evolution
The Model 1904 McClellan Saddle Pattern III US Saddle used in WW1
The Real War Horses of America US blog site with multiple newspaper quotes and references
The Unsung Equestrian Heroes of World War I and the Plot to Poison Them US Article on attempt to poison horses at Newport News VA


Motion picture technology was in its early stages during the war, but even the blurred and jerky images are fascinating because they record such things as gestures and body language that go beyond words in describing battle conditions. The training films for the Quartermaster Corps are particularly enlightening because they were taken in the United States under better filming conditions than were possible in Europe, and show horse care and training practices of the day. Most of the films noted below are available on the web as video using the archives link that is shown.

Film Topic Web Address
[Hearst Newsreel Excerpts] Dead Bloated Horses
[Pathe Newsreel Excerpts] Herds Of Horses Moving
[Stock Newsreel Excerpts] Carts Pass Through Ruins Of Village Horses In Mud
[Stock Newsreel Excerpts] Multiple Scenes For CBS Documentary
[Stock Newsreel Excerpts] Horses Being Ponied On Road
[Stock Newsreel Excerpts] Horses Struggle On Muddy Road
[Stock Newsreel Excerpts] Horses Return From Front For Rest
[Stock Newsreel Excerpts] Mules Carry Wounded On Trail
[Stock Newsreel Excerpts] Yanks Pull Baby Carriage With Horse
Miscellaneous Quartermaster Activities In The U.S.A Ft Sill Ft Sam Houston Cavalry Training June 1918
Pack Mule Training
Remount And Veterinary Activities In The A. E. F. [1918]
Saint-Mihiel [Offensive, 1918]
The 42nd Division [World War I]
The 83rd Division [World War I]
The Army Of Occupation, December 1, 1918 To September 1, 1919, 3rd Army Headquarters Horse Care Instruction
The Army Of Occupation, December 1, 1918 To September 1, 1919, 4th Corps Horse Show
Training And Review Of Officer Candidates For The Field Artillery, At Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Kentucky